Top 10 Ways to Reduce Your Risk of Heart Disease

6. Avoid trans fats.
Trans fatty acids have been linked to adverse lipid profiles and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This includes most margarines. The role of other fatty acids, including monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and marine omega-3 fatty acids, remains controversial.
 
7. Consume alcohol only in moderation.
Moderate intake of alcohol is related to reduction of cardiovascular disease — but may raise blood pressure and increase risk of breast cancer. Early surgical menopause is linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which appears to be negated by the use of estrogen therapy.
 
8. Arm yourself with risk-reducing vitamins.
Antioxidant vitamin supplements, particularly vitamin E and homocysteine-lowering agents such as folate and B6, have promising roles in prevention of cardiovascular disease, but conclusive evidence may hinge on the results of several ongoing randomized clinical trials. When it is found in unusually high levels, homocysteine brings the same degree of risk as having high cholesterol does. The B vitamins, especially folic acid and B12, will drive elevated homocysteine levels down to normal, often without the need of any prescription medication.
 
9. Give yourself some new stress-management tools.
Poorly controlled stress may have an adverse effect on blood lipids. An attitude of hostility has been powerfully linked with a higher incidence of cardiac events, and cynical distrust has been associated with accelerated progression of carotid artery disease. Relaxation methods (meditation, breathing exercises), yoga, and stress management techniques are essential for preventing cardiovascular disease and coronary artery disease and for reducing the risk of recurrent cardiac problems. Meditation improves exercise tolerance and decreases electrical changes associated with poor circulation to the heart. Meditation has also been shown to lower cholesterol and reverse carotid artery thickening. Also consider acupuncture, which has been shown to help relax the myocardium and improve circulation.

10. Ask your health professional about herbs and nutritional supplements that may be useful in preventing and treating cardiovascular disease, including:
·         Bilberry
·         Turmeric (curcumin)
·         Fenugreek
·         Ginger
·         Guggul
·         Ginkgo
·         Garlic (one garlic clove is roughly equal to 4 mg to 1 gram of garlic; a daily dose of 600 to 800mg may be recommended)
·         Onion
·         Vitamin B12
·         Folic acid (500 to 5000 micrograms daily may be recommended)
·         B66. Avoid trans fats.
Trans fatty acids have been linked to adverse lipid profiles and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This includes most margarines. The role of other fatty acids, including monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and marine omega-3 fatty acids, remains controversial.
 
7. Consume alcohol only in moderation.
Moderate intake of alcohol is related to reduction of cardiovascular disease — but may raise blood pressure and increase risk of breast cancer. Early surgical menopause is linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which appears to be negated by the use of estrogen therapy.
 
8. Arm yourself with risk-reducing vitamins.
Antioxidant vitamin supplements, particularly vitamin E and homocysteine-lowering agents such as folate and B6, have promising roles in prevention of cardiovascular disease, but conclusive evidence may hinge on the results of several ongoing randomized clinical trials. When it is found in unusually high levels, homocysteine brings the same degree of risk as having high cholesterol does. The B vitamins, especially folic acid and B12, will drive elevated homocysteine levels down to normal, often without the need of any prescription medication.
 
9. Give yourself some new stress-management tools.
Poorly controlled stress may have an adverse effect on blood lipids. An attitude of hostility has been powerfully linked with a higher incidence of cardiac events, and cynical distrust has been associated with accelerated progression of carotid artery disease. Relaxation methods (meditation, breathing exercises), yoga, and stress management techniques are essential for preventing cardiovascular disease and coronary artery disease and for reducing the risk of recurrent cardiac problems. Meditation improves exercise tolerance and decreases electrical changes associated with poor circulation to the heart. Meditation has also been shown to lower cholesterol and reverse carotid artery thickening. Also consider acupuncture, which has been shown to help relax the myocardium and improve circulation.
 
10. Ask your health professional about herbs and nutritional supplements that may be useful in preventing and treating cardiovascular disease, including:
·         Bilberry
·         Turmeric (curcumin)
·         Fenugreek
·         Ginger
·         Guggul
·         Ginkgo
·         Garlic (one garlic clove is roughly equal to 4 mg to 1 gram of garlic; a daily dose of 600 to 800mg may be recommended)
·         Onion
·         Vitamin B12
·         Folic acid (500 to 5000 micrograms daily may be recommended)
·         B6
·         L-Carnitine
·         Coenzyme Q10 (100 to 300 mg daily may be recommended)
·         Vitamin E (400 to 800 International Units daily may be recommended)
·         Magnesium (200 to 400 mg daily may be recommended)
·         Niacin (A typical oral dose of 100 mg, three times daily; may gradually increase to avg. dose of 1 gram three times daily, with a maximum dose of 6 grams. Extended release tablets: Dosing may begin with one 375-milligram tablet at bedtime and be increased by no more than 500 mg per four-week period, to a maximum of 2,000 mg, given as two 1,000-milligram tablets before bed)
·         Fish oils (6 grams daily may be recommended)
·         Soy (Isoflavones may be recommended)
·         L-Carnitine
·         Coenzyme Q10 (100 to 300 mg daily may be recommended)
·         Vitamin E (400 to 800 International Units daily may be recommended)
·         Magnesium (200 to 400 mg daily may be recommended)
·         Niacin (A typical oral dose of 100 mg, three times daily; may gradually increase to avg. dose of 1 gram three times daily, with a maximum dose of 6 grams. Extended release tablets: Dosing may begin with one 375-milligram tablet at bedtime and be increased by no more than 500 mg per four-week period, to a maximum of 2,000 mg, given as two 1,000-milligram tablets before bed)
·         Fish oils (6 grams daily may be recommended)
·         Soy (Isoflavones may be recommended)

Lalbagh Fort

Previous read.......Diwani-i-Aam
Diwan-i-Aam is a two storeyed building. A single storeyed hammam is attached on its west. The hammam portion has an underground room for boiling water. A long partition wall runs along the western facade of the hammam.

A water tank
A square shaped water tank (71.63m on each side) is placed to the east of the Diwan-i-Aam. There are four corner stairs to descend into the tank.

Tomb of Bibi Pari
The tomb of Bibi Pari, the daughter of Shaista Khan, is in the middle of the complex. There is a central square room. It contains the remains of Bibi Pari covered by a false octagonal dome and wrapped by brass plate. The entire inner wall is covered with white marble. Eight rooms surround the central one. There is another small grave in the southeastern corner room.

Lalbagh Fort Mosque
The Lalbagh Fort Mosque is a three-domed mosque with a water tank on the eastern side.

Stories
From the time of construction till date, various myths have revolved around the fort. Among all the historical stories and debates, it is widely believed that Lalbagh Fort stands as a monument of the unfulfilled dreams of Prince Muhammad Azam, beloved son of Emperor Aurangzeb. In the mid 17th century, he was serving as the Viceroy of Bengal and began the construction of the impressive Lalbagh Fort complex.

Therefore the popular stories about the fort begin. Before the construction was finished, Prince Azam was called back to his father, to assist in the war against the Marathas. Legend says, after the Mughal prince departed, Shaista Khan continued with building the project, but upon the untimely death of his much-loved daughter Iran-Dukht, warmly known as Pari Bibi, the construction was stopped. Bibi was engaged to Prince Azam at the time of her death .  There are also legends and debates about the identity of Pari Bibi. Few researchers claim she was a nine-year-old Ahom princess. Mir Jumals Ahom’s expedition brought a war adjoining the Garo hills. He took the daughter of Ahom Raja to compel him for the full execution of the previous peace treaty. Later, the emperor made her convert to Islam and married her off to prince Azam. However, overshadowing all the debates, people now believe that she was the loving daughter of Nawab Shaista Khan.

Important facts


Archeologists after a recent excavation discover continuity of the main fort walls towards east below Shaishta Khan Road and opine that the present area of Qilla only represents half portion as planned by Prince Azam Khan. The gate at south east of Fort (adjacent to Lalbagh Shahi Masjid) as per requirement fits properly as the Central Gate in the middle of Fort, the other half on east- likely palnned for administrative purpose (Girde Qilla area)- were incomplete or extinct long ago.


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The Big Hole,

The Big Hole, Open Mine or Kimberley Mine (Afrikaans: Groot Gat) is an open-pit and underground mine in Kimberley, South Africa, and claimed to be the largest hole excavated by hand, although this claim is disputed.
History of Kimberley

The first diamonds here were found on Colesberg Kopje by members of the "Red Cap Party" from Colesberg on the farm Vooruitzigt belonging to the De Beers brothers.[when?] The ensuing scramble for claims led to the place being called New Rush, later renamed Kimberley.[when?] From mid-July 1871to 1914 up to 50,000 miners dug the hole with picks and shovels,yielding 2,720 kilograms (6,000 lb) of diamonds. The Big Hole has a surface of 17 hectares (42 acres) and is 463 metres (1,519 ft) wide. It was excavated to a depth of 240 metres (790 ft), but then partially infilled with debris reducing its depth to about 215 metres (705 ft). Since then it has accumulated about 40 metres (130 ft) of water, leaving 175 metres (574 ft) of the hole visible. Once above-ground operations became too dangerous and unproductive, the kimberlite pipe of the Kimberley Mine was also mined underground by Cecil Rhodes' De Beers company to a depth of 1,097 metres (3,599 ft).There is currently an effort in progress to register the Big Hole as a World Heritage Site.Read More.........

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Tsitsikamma National Park

The Tsitsikamma National Park is a protected area on the Garden Route, Western Cape and Eastern Cape, South Africa. It is a coastal reserve well known for its indigenous forests, dramatic coastline, and the Otter Trail. On 6 March 2009 it was amalgamated with the Wilderness National Park and various other areas of land to form the Garden Route National Park.
The park covers an 80 kilometres (50 miles) long stretch of coastline. Nature's Valley is at the western end of the park, and the main accommodation is at Storms River Mouth. Near the park is the Bloukrans Bridge, the world's highest bungee jump at 216 metres (709 ft).
The word "Tsitsikamma" hails from the Khoekhoe language tse-tsesa, meaning "clear", and gami, meaning "water", probably referring to the clear water of the Tsitsikamma River. Other meanings are 'place of much water' and 'waters begin'.
Storms River

Various amenities, including a restaurant, shop, chalets, camp site and caravan park, information centre, adventure bookings office, the Agulhas lookout platform, trees marked with their national tree list numbers and underwater trails. Read More

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History Cradle of Humankind

Australopithecus africanus (Hominid Reconstruction).
In 1935 Robert Broom found the first ape-man fossils at Sterkfontein and began work at this site. In 1938 a young schoolboy, Gert Terrblanche, brought Raymond Dart fragments of a skull from nearby Kromdraai which later were identified as Paranthropus robustus. Also in 1938 a single ape-man tooth was found at the Cooper's site between Kromdraai and Sterkfontein. In 1948 the Camp-Peabody Expedition from the United States worked at Bolts Farm and Gladysvale looking for fossil hominids but failed to find any. Later in 1948 Robert Broom identified the first hominid remains from Swartkrans cave. In 1954 C.K. Brain began working at sites in the Cradle including Coopers and he soon would initiate his three decade work at Swartkrans cave which would result in the recovery of the second largest sample of hominid remains from the Cradle. The oldest controlled use of fire was also discovered at Swartkrans and dated to over 1 million years ago.

In 1966 Phillip Tobias began his excavations of Sterkfontein which are still continuing and are the longest continuously running fossil excavations in the world. In 1991 Lee Berger of the University of the Witwatersrand discovered the first hominid specimens from the Gladysvale site making this the first new early hominid site to be discovered in South Africa in 48 years. In 1994 Andre Keyser discovered fossil hominids at the site of Drimolen. In 1997 Kevin Kuykendall and Colin Menter of the University of the Witwatersrand found two fossil hominid teeth at the site of Gondolin. Also in 1997, the near-complete Australopithecus skeleton of "Little Foot", dating to around 3.3 million years ago (although more recent dates suggest it is closer to 2.5 million years ago), was discovered by Ron Clarke. In 2001 Steve Churchill of Duke University and Lee Berger found early modern human remains at Plovers Lake. Also in 2001 the first hominid fossils and stone tools were discovered in-situ at Coopers. In 2008, Lee Berger discovered the partial remains of two hominids(Australopithecus sediba) in the Malapa Fossil Site that lived between 1.78 and 1.95 million years ago.

In October of 2013, Lee Berger of the University of the Witwatersrand commissioned geologist Pedro Boshoff to investigate cave systems in the Cradle of Humankind for the express purpose of discovering more fossil hominin sites. Cavers Rick Hunter and Steven Tucker discovered fossil hominid fossils in a previously unexplored area of the Rising Star/Westminster Cave System assigned site designation UW-101. In November of 2013, Lee Berger led a joint expedition of the University of the Witwatersrand and National Geographic Society to the Rising Star Cave System near Swartkrans. In just three weeks of excavation, the six-woman international team of advance speleological scientists (K. Lindsay Eaves, Marina Elliott, Elen Feuerriegel, Alia Gurtov, Hannah Morris, and Becca Peixotto, chosen for their paleoanthropological and caving skills, as well as their small size, recovered over 1,200 specimens of a presently unidentified fossil hominin species. The site is still in the process of being dated. In the last days of the Rising Star Expedition, cavers Rick Hunter and Steven Tucker discovered additional fossil hominid material in another portion of the cave system. Preliminary excavations at this site, designated UW-102, have begun and yielded complete hominid fossil material of its own. It is unknown what the relationship of sites 101 and 102 is.

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Type
Cultural
Criteria
iii, vi
Reference
UNESCO region
Africa
Inscription history
Inscription
1999 (23rd Session)
Extensions
2005

12 Amazing Foods That Will Improve Your Resistance to Disease

Twelve Amazing Foods That Will Improve Your Resistance to DiseaseWe all get ill sometimes, but many people underestimate the significant role that diet can play in improving the body’s ability to fight infection. Read on to discover twelve fantastic foods that have been proven to boost the immune system and improve resistance to disease.

1) Garlic: The reason why garlic gives you particularly malodorous breath is that it contains certain oils that your digestive system simply cannot break down. Instead, these oils make their way out of your body through your mouth, and so they have to pass through your respiratory tract. As they do so, they kill harmful viruses and bacteria found lurking there. In addition, one fascinating study performed in the United Kingdom showed that people who took garlic extract for twelve weeks were two thirds less likely to catch a cold than people who were taking a placebo.

2) Barley and oats: Barley and oats are a source of beta-glucan, a type of fiber that has powerful antimicrobial properties. Studies conducted on animals have shown that a diet high in beta-glucan is linked to a markedly decreased likelihood of contracting influenza viruses and herpes viruses. There is also some evidence that eating food that contains beta-glucan can enhance the ability of antibiotic drugs.

3) Pineapples: Pineapples provide you with a chemical called bromelain, and this improves your resistance to disease in a couple of different ways. Firstly, it reduces sinus inflammation when you have a cold, flu or sinus infection. Secondly, it lowers levels of unwanted inflammation associated with diseases such as arthritis and asthma.

4) Honey: All honey is capable of reducing the duration and severity of the main symptoms that are associated with upper respiratory infections. This is because honey erodes and destroys any bacteria that it encounters in your throat. However, there is one particular kind that is especially good at fighting infection. Manuka honey has been the subject of nutritional research for quite some time, and studies have shown that it contains a special compound capable of fighting bacteria throughout the entire body. Unlike regular honey, which can only kill bacteria it physically touches, manuka honey helps to fight bacteria everywhere inside you.

5) Goji berries: Goji berries are an infamous superfood, bursting with different chemicals that can improve your quality of life by enhancing a whole host of bodily functions. When it comes to fighting disease, the polysaccharide sugars found in goji berries help by encouraging your immune system to produce more white blood cells (which are vital when it comes to fending off viral and bacterial infections).

 6) Black tea:One study conducted by scientists at Harvard discovered that people who drank at least five cups of black tea for two weeks had ten times the normal amount of interferons in their blood. Interferons are proteins that fight viral and bacterial infections by inhibiting their ability to replicate. This means that steady consumption of black tea is likely to make you less vulnerable to infection.

7) Blueberries: Blueberries are a source of copper, and copper has antibacterial properties that will help you to fight certain infections. Further, blueberries provide you with a large chunk of your recommended daily intake of iron, and this increases the amount of hemoglobin in your blood (making sure that the right amount of oxygen reaches all the important parts of your body).

8) Shiitake mushrooms: Shiitake mushrooms can help your body effectively resist disease by improving immune system function. Like goji berries, they are a source of polysaccharide sugars that promote the production of white blood cells, and your body is more capable of fending off infections when it has a large supply of white blood cells.

9) Chili: When you have a cold or flu, try adding plenty of chili to your food. It thins out mucus, reducing the discomfort of a blocked nose and speeding recovery from infection.

10) Ginger: Ginger is a popular traditional treatment for nausea and vomiting, but it is also capable of lowering levels of inflammation. This is due to the presence of gingerols, chemicals that stop certain enzymes from raising inflammation in the body. Given this property of ginger, it is an ideal part of your diet if you happen to suffer from inflammatory diseases like ulcerative colitis, arthritis and asthma.

11) Strawberries: Strawberries are awonderful source of vitamin C, with one serving providing you with a massive 136% of your recommended daily intake. It is well documented that high levels of vitamin C are associated with better resistance to disease.

12) Pumpkin seeds: Pumpkin seeds are an ideal snack when you are suffering from a gastric flu or related viral infection, as they contain a powerful antiviral chemical called cucurbitin. In addition, it is a good idea to eat pumpkin seeds even when you are perfectly healthy, as they will reduce your likelihood of falling ill in the future. This is because they contain zinc, and zinc is necessary to ensure proper white blood cell function. When your white blood cells are functioning well, you are more resistant to disease.


Eating plenty of all of the above foods will improve your resistance to disease and make you less likely to contract annoying bacterial and viral infections.

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5 steps for preventing kidney stones

Preventing kidney stones means preventing the conditions that support their formation. I asked Dr. Melanie Hoenig, an assistant professor of medicine at Harvard-affiliated Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, for the top ways to prevent kidney stones. Here are her recommendations:
Drink plenty of water: Drinking extra water dilutes the substances in urine that lead to stones. Strive to drink enough fluids to pass 2 liters of urine a day, which is roughly eight standard 8-ounce cups. It may help to include some citrus beverages, like lemonade and orange juice. The citrate in these beverages helps block stone formation.
Get the calcium you need: Getting too little calcium in your diet can cause oxalate levels to rise and cause kidney stones. To prevent this, make sure to take in an amount of calcium appropriate to your age. Ideally, obtain calcium from foods, since some studies have linked taking calcium supplements to kidney stones. Men 50 and older should get 1,000 milligrams (mg) of calcium per day, along with 800 to 1,000 international units (IU) of vitamin D to help the body absorb the calcium.
Reduce sodium: A high-sodium diet can trigger kidney stones because it increases the amount of calcium in your urine. So a low-sodium diet is recommended for the stone prone. Current guidelines suggest limiting total daily sodium intake to 2,300 mg. If sodium has contributed to kidney stones in the past, try to reduce your daily intake to 1,500 mg. This will also be good for your blood pressure and heart.
Limit animal protein: Eating too much animal protein, such as red meat, poultry, eggs, and seafood, boosts the level of uric acid and could lead to kidney stones. A high-protein diet also reduces levels of citrate, the chemical in urine that helps prevent stones from forming. If you’re prone to stones, limit your daily meat intake to a quantity that is no bigger than a pack of playing cards. This is also a heart-healthy portion.
Avoid stone-forming foods: Beets, chocolate, spinach, rhubarb, tea, and most nuts are rich in oxalate, and colas are rich in phosphate, both of which can contribute to kidney stones. If you suffer from stones, yourdoctor may advise you to avoid these foods or to consume them in smaller amounts.

For everyone else, particular foods and drinks are unlikely to trigger kidney stones unless consumed in extremely high amounts. Some studies have shown that men who take high doses of vitamin C in the form of supplements are at slightly higher risk of kidney stones. That may be because the body converts vitamin C into oxalate.
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Sinharaja Forest Reserve

Sinharaja Forest Reserve is a national park and a biodiversity hotspot in Sri Lanka. It is of international significance and has been designated a Biosphere Reserve and World Heritage Site by UNESCO.The hilly virgin rainforest, part of the Sri Lanka lowland rain forests ecoregion, was saved from the worst of commercial logging by its inaccessibility, and was designated a World Biosphere Reserve in 1978 and a World Heritage Site in 1988. The reserve's name translates as Kingdom of the Lion.The reserve is only 21 km (13 mi) from east to west, and a maximum of 7 km (4.3 mi) from north to south, but it is a treasure trove of endemic species, including trees, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.Because of the dense vegetation, wildlife is not as easily seen as at dry-zone national parks such as Yala. There are about 3 elephants and the 15 or so leopards are rarely seen. The most common larger mammal is the endemic purple-faced langur.

Location               Sabaragamuwa and Southern Provinces, Sri Lanka
Established         April, 1978
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Designated         1988 (12th session)
State Party          Sri Lanka
Region  Asia-Pacific

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Dubai Creek



Dubai Creek is a saltwater creek located in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). It ends at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary. Some sources say that the creek extended as far inland as Al Ain, and that the Ancient Greeks called it River Zara. Historically, the creek divided the city into two main sections – Deira and Bur Dubai. It was along the Bur Dubai creek area that members of the Bani Yas tribe first settled in the 19th century, establishing the Al Maktoum dynasty in the city. In the early 20th century, the creek, though incapable then of supporting large scale transportation, served as a minor port for dhows coming as far away as India or East Africa. Although it impeded the entry of ships due to current flow, the creek remained an important element in establishing the commercial position of Dubai, being the only port or harbour in the city. Dubai's pearling industry, which formed the main sector of the city's economy, was based primarily on expeditions in the creek, prior to the invention of cultured pearls in the 1930s.Dubai Creek's bank, north of Al-Maktoum Bridge. Still used by small traders from across the Gulf, some of the dhows anchored here are well over 100 years old. You can visit here, watching cargo being loaded and unloaded on and off the dhows. Dhow workers often invite visitors onto the vessels for a tour, where you can gain insight into the life of these traditional sailors. Many of the dhows here travel onwards to Kuwait, Iran, Oman, India, and down to Africa's horn. This tiny remnant of Dubai's traditional economy is still a bustling and fascinating place to wander around.To travel across the creek you can either take a trip on one of the many dhows that have been restored as tourist cruise boats or take an abra (small wooden ferry) between the ferry points on the creek's Bur Dubai and Deira banks.
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Lake Taupo,Newzealand

Chelmswood Motel    Very good 8.4 Lake Taupo is a lake situated in the North Island of New Zealand. With a surface area of 616 square kilometres (238 sq mi), it is the largest lake by surface area in New Zealand, and the second largest freshwater lake by surface area in geopolitical Oceania after Lake Murray (Papua New Guinea).
Lake Taupo has a perimeter of approximately 193 kilometres, a deepest point of 186 metres. It is drained by the Waikato River (New Zealand's longest river), while its main tributaries are the Waitahanui River, the Tongariro River, and the Tauranga Taupo River. It is a noted trout fishery with stocks of introduced brown trout and rainbow trout.
Main article: Taupo Volcano
Lake Taupo lies in a caldera created by a supervolcanic eruption which occurred approximately 26,500 years ago. According to geological records, the volcano has erupted 28 times in the last 27,000 years. It has ejected mostly rhyolitic lava, although Mount Tauhara formed from dacitic lava.

Location
Taupo District, Waikato Region, North Island
Coordinates
38°48′25″S 175°54′28″ECoordinates: 38°48′25″S 175°54′28″E
Type
crater lake, oligotrophic
Primary inflows
Waitahanui River, Tongariro River, Tauranga Taupo River
Primary outflows
Waikato River
Catchment area
3,487 km2 (1,346 sq mi)
Basin countries
New Zealand
Max. length
46 km (29 mi)
Max. width
33 km (21 mi)
Surface area
616 km2 (238 sq mi)
Average depth
110 m (360 ft)
Max. depth
186 m (610 ft)
Water volume
59 km3 (14 cu mi)
Residence time
10.5 years
Shore length1
193 km (120 mi)
Surface elevation
356 m (1,168 ft)

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